Manas National Park

Explore Diverse Flora and Fauna of Manas National Park

Manas National Park is a perfect choice for a wildlife enthusiast visiting India to see one-horned rhinos. It is also home to Asian elephants, Asian wild water buffalos, and other animal species.

Deemed a safe shelter for many endangered species, Manas National Park had about 100 rhinos when it earned the title of UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site in 1985. The park was included in the heritage list 2011 when the one-horned rhinos were transferred from Pobitora and Kaziranga in Assam.

Besides being a heritage site, Manas National Park is an elephant, tiger, and biosphere reserve. The wildlife reserve covers various districts of Assam, like Chirang, Kokrajhar, Udalguri, Baska, and Darrang. It has three ranges – Bansbari (Central), Panbari (Western), and Bhuiapara (Eastern).

Manas National Park is home to around 50 reptiles, 40 birds, and 55 mammal species. The rare species of hispid hare, pygmy hog, golden langur, and roofed turtle are the most famous. As for the avifauna, this national park houses the world’s largest population, the endangered Bengal florican.

Along with flora and fauna, Manas National Park has Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai and the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests.

Read below to know the flora and fauna of Manas National Park in detail.

Fauna of Manas National Park

Visit Manas National Park to witness different mammals, birds, and amphibians. The sanctuary is home to around 55 species of mammals, 450 species of birds, 50 species of reptiles, and three species of amphibians. About 21 wild animals are listed under India’s Schedule I mammals, and 31 are threatened.

Asian water buffaloes, Indian tigers, Indian leopards, slow loris, Indian Elephant, Indian rhinoceros, capped langurs, hoolock gibbons, smooth-coated otters, Asian golden cats, clouded leopards, barking deers, black panthers, dholes, and sloth beards are some of the fauna in the sanctuary.

Here is the top fauna in Manas National Park. Take a look.


Asian Elephants

An essential part of nature, Asian Elephants are grazers and browsers that eat massive amounts of vegetation every day and spread seeds as they go around. Their habitat includes grasslands, scrublands, and evergreen and deciduous forests. It is crucial to note that more than half of Asian Elephants are found in India, with around 10,000 in North East India. Today, there are fewer than 52,000 Asian elephants left in the wild. Therefore, they have been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species).

Asian Elephants are different from those in Africa. They are not quite significant and have smaller ears. Their color is generally dark gray to brown, and pink or yellow marks on the face, ears, and trunk. Females are more social and live in herds, while males live alone and in smaller groups.

Indian Rhinoceros

Rhinos in India mainly live in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Brahmaputra and Ganges Valley. They are found in seven protected areas, including Manas National Park. Scientifically called Rhinoceros unicornis, the Indian rhino, greater one-horned rhinoceros, or great Indian rhinoceros is listed on the IUCN Red List. Nearly 85% of its global population is concentrated in Assam, where Kaziranga has 70% of Indian rhinos. 

In the early 1990s, Indian rhinos were estimated to have been between 1,870 and 1,895. They were found throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain’s excessive hunting and agricultural development stretch. Still, due to hunting and agricultural development, they are now reduced to 11 sites in northern India. The government’s conservation steps increased their number, but poaching remains a continuous threat. Little did many know poachers hunted more than 150 Indian rhinos in Assam between 2000 and 2006.


Bengal Florican

Found in the grasslands of the Ganga and Brahmaputra valleys in India, Bengal Florican is a famous bird species in Manas National Park. They are a critically endangered bustard species of tall grassland. Scattered across South and Southeast Asia, this bird species is the world’s rarest bustard. Due to poaching, their population is down to less than 350 adult birds, about 85% of which are found in India.

Male Bengal Floricans have speckled brown backs with white wings, while females have detailed patterns of fluffy brown all over. Males’ wings seem white except for the dark primary remiges in flight. Their feet and legs are yellow. Females have lighter wings, and immature Bengal Floricans resemble females. Adult Bengal Floricans range from 66 to 68 cm long and around 55 cm tall.

Giant Hornbills

Scientifically named Buceros bicornis, Giant Hornbills are a “near threatened” bird species also listed on the IUCN List. The biggest threat is removing their habitat with more old trees. They are larger and make a distinct sound, making it easy for hunters to target and take them for feathers and meat. Giant Hornbills are found in the Western Ghats and forests in the northeastern and southern regions.

They mainly live in tall, wet, and evergreen forests. The height of the trees is a significant factor in holding a female and her eggs. They use the same nesting site again and again. They are a larger bird species with a 161 to 178 cm wingspan. And on average, they weigh approx. 3 kg. Their loud sound and vivid colors attract the birdwatchers.


Common Garden Lizard

In India, the Common Garden Lizard is called “girgit” in Hindi, a lizard that changes colors. This ability allows the Common Garden Lizard to camouflage in its surroundings. They are medium-sized lizards that are widely distributed across India. Male lizards have a red-colored head and crest the mating time, so they are also named “bloodsuckers.”

They are found hanging on thin twigs and lying still like a leaf. They sit and wait for plants, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals for their food. They control the population of various species, thus having a vital role in the ecosystem.

Brahminy Blind Snake

A rarely seen reptile species is the Brahminy Blind Snake in Manas National Park, Assam. It burrows in soil and leaf litter. Its physical features include a dark brown to black body, a barely noticeable head, and tiny black eyes. This snake is almost blind but can differentiate between light and dark. Also, its tail is short and blunt, with a short, sharp spine.

They can be seen when digging in the soil or turning over rocks after heavy rains. With a 20 cm body, Brahminy Blind Snake is among the smallest snakes in the world. As for their food habits, they feed on small invertebrates. Another essential thing to note about them is that they are the only known parthenogenetic snakes with all female specimens; thus, their reproduction is asexual.

Also Check out Popular Assam Wildlife Tour Packages

Flora of Manas National Park

About 50% of the area in this national park is covered by grassland, which is classified as Eastern wet alluvial grassland. Manas National Park is also known for being home to four types of forests: Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen Forests, Low Alluvial Savanna Woodland, East Himalayan Mixed Moist and Dry Deciduous Forests, and Assam Valley Semi-Evergreen Alluvial Grasslands.

There are about 543 plant species in Manas National Park. Some standard trees found here include the Java Plum (Syzygium cumin), Indian Bay Leaf (Cinnamomum Tamala), Karmal (Dillenia Pentagyna), Small Flowered Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia parviflora), Baheda (Terminalia Bellirica), Gamhar (Gmelina Arborea), Pride of India (Lagerstroemia Speciosa), and Indian Trumpet Tree (Oroxylum Indicum).

Here is the top fauna in Manas National Park. Take a look. 

Burflower-tree (Anthocephalus Chinensis)

Burflower-tree is among the most common tree types in Manas National Park, a large tree with a broad crown and straight cylindrical bole. They are 45 m tall with a 100 – 160 cm of trunk. Young trees have a gray, smooth bark, while the older ones are rough. The flowers on this tree are orange and yellow with fragrance. Further, they are native to Nepal but are also found in this national park. If the seed is sown in February and March, Burflower-tree provides seedlings by the break of the monsoon season.

Pithraj Tree (Aphanamixis Polystachya)

A deciduous tree native to India, Pithraj Tree is 20 to 30 m tall. Its leaves are 30 to 60 cm long with 9 to 21 leaflets. These leaflets are elliptic, becoming small and leathery when they mature, and have visible transparent tiny spots under sunlight. The flowers of the Pithraj Tree are 6 to 7 mm in diameter and have 3 to 7 mm petals. The seeds of the flowers are grayish brown. In India, this tree is found in the eastern Himalayas and Peninsular India. They also have medicinal uses in the spleen, liver diseases, and abdominal and tumor cases. In addition, the seed oil is used to treat rheumatism.

Pride of India (Lagerstroemia Speciosa)

One of the most beautiful flowering trees in the world, Pride of India is a summer bloomer. It is a moderate-sized species with many uses in Ayurvedic medicine. Jarul, the flower on this tree, treats ailments like urinary tract infections, high blood pressure, and type II diabetes mellitus. Tea is also made from the leaves and has no known side effects. The flowers are large, dark pink to lavender blooms, which flower twice a year. They stand out in every landscape and attract many botanists worldwide.


So, are you excited to see flora and fauna in Manas National Park? If yes, don’t wait further—book Manas National Park tour packages with Indian Visit today. The packages are affordable and include everything you need for a hassle-free wildlife tour in India. Connect with our team of travel experts, who will answer all wildlife-related queries in India.

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